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Words Drive Action: An Interview with Gerry McGovern

by Christine Perfetti
on August 12, 2002

Gerry is a world-renowned content-management expert and author of the books, "Content Critical" and "The Web Content Style Guide". User Interface Engineering’s Christine Perfetti and Josh Porter recently talked
with Gerry about the importance of an editorial perspective in a web development
process. Here is what Gerry had to say about his experiences.

UIE: In your book, "Content Critical" you describe the web as
a medium for publishing content and recommend that designers view their site
as a publication. Is the web-publishing model a change in mindset for most

Gerry McGovern: My focus is business websites with commercial or strategic
objectives. For these types of websites, a publishing approach works very well.

Publishing is about getting the right content to the right person at the right
time at the right cost. It’s about selecting the best content and editing it
really well, so that it makes compelling reading.

Some designers take a volume approach to content. "Let’s get clever software
and organize as much content as possible," this thinking goes. Some take
a strong graphical design approach, emphasizing the visual. My approach doesn’t
ignore the software or the visuals, but focuses fundamentally on the words
on the page. That’s because, it is words that drive actions on a web page.

What new factors must designers consider when they start to view their
site as a publication?

I think we need designers who think like editors. We need to ask questions
such as: What’s our most important content? What content do we have that people
really want to read and can’t find anywhere else?

The huge challenge today is that there is so much content. Some people think
that all you need to do is make content available on the intranet and staff
will read it. But, that’s not true. How are you going to create a website where
it’s easy to find the right content? When people find that content, you want
to make sure that it’s laid out in a way that is easy to read.

The content itself must be compelling. It must drive action. After someone
reads your content, how more likely will they be to want to buy your product?
If a member of staff reads a new product description, how better will they
be able to explain that product to a prospective customer?

In your full-day seminar at User Interface 11, you’ll discuss a publishing
strategy methodology for delivering content. What does this strategy involve?

There are two core elements in a publishing strategy. The first is defining
your publishing processes. The core publishing processes are: create, edit,
and publish. The second core element is your information architecture, which
focuses on how you organize and lay out the content you publish.

What do you see as the ideal make-up for a web publishing team? 

To be a success, I believe that the person in charge of a web publishing team
must have an editorial perspective. They have to champion the reader of the
content. They have to truly understand the needs of that reader, and be able
to publish content relevant to that reader.

It sounds basic, but a good publishing team requires good editors and good
writers. You need people who can write short, snappy, compelling content. You
need people who can come up with headings that will make readers want to click
for more.

There are lots of technical skills you require too, of course. There are graphical
design skills. But, if you don’t have quality content skills in your team,
you’re in trouble.

In both your book and your full-day seminar, you stress the importance
of content standards. Why do you feel a standards-based approach is the best
way to design an information architecture?

All mature disciplines have core standards and rules. As information architecture
matures, core standards are being established. For example, navigation tends
to go on the left; the organization logo in the top left corner; the name of
the homepage tends to be ‘Home.’

Picasso introduced a unique style to art. But, Picasso knew the basic rules
of painting inside out. Before James Joyce experimented, he developed an intimate
knowledge of grammar and style. So, yes, there are times you can bend and break
the rules. However, first you need to understand the rules and standards of
your discipline.

Anyone interested in becoming an information architect should first and foremost
have a deep understanding of the core standards and rules of the discipline.

Is XML the solution to all of our problems regarding content standards? 

No. XML is a powerful toolkit for metadata standards. But, if you don’t choose
the right metadata, XML is useless. XML can only work when there is a common
approach to metadata.

In your work, you emphasize the importance of metadata for information
architecture. In your experience, why do some people still not recognize
that importance of a proper plan for metadata? What advice would you give
to designers that must convince stakeholders that metadata is essential?

If your content isn’t read, what good is it? Before content can be read, it
has to be found. Quality metadata increases the chance that your content will
be found by the person who needs to find it.

Metadata delivers essential information such as: who, what, when. Who wrote
it? What is it about (the summary)? What subject is it under (the classification)?
When was it published?

Information overload is one of the most critical problems that we all face
everyday. How is your content going to be found and read? Well, having quality
metadata significantly increases its chances.

Are there any companies you’ve worked with that have successfully standardized
web design across the organization?

The type of work I get is around helping large organizations develop best
practices in how they publish their content on the Web. I certainly find that
there is an increasing interest in achieving a standardized web design process.
It’s more cost-effective, it’s easier to manage and it’s what the reader wants.

I’m presently working with a number of organizations to streamline their publishing
processes. It makes so much sense. However, what needs to be understood here
is that having standardized publishing processes does not necessarily mean
controlling the content people create at a local level.

The optimal publishing solution is to have central standards but local publishing
of content. The department or group is given authority to publish the content
they think is right, once basic rules of the road are applied.

In your full-day seminar, you’ll talk about how "Navigation is Critical".
One of the navigation principles you advocate is for designers to follow
web conventions. In your opinion, why are web conventions so important?

In the last month, I have been in France, Malaysia and Singapore. At home
in Ireland, I’m used to seeing the sign for a motorway with two lines and a
bridge across. It’s the exact same sign in France, Malaysia and Singapore.

People instinctively see the Web as one giant place that they navigate around.
They’re used to looking for a set of important links that run across the top
of the page. They’re used to finding ‘Home’ as the first link in this set of

Now, if you’re designing a website, wouldn’t you want to put the ‘Home’ link
in the position where people are used to finding it? Implementing web convention
means that the person who visits your website has less to learn in order to
successfully navigate around your website.

Some people may take issue with your argument. Some say that a site’s layout
should depend on the type of content on the site—not web conventions.

I disagree. Black text on a white background is easier to read. 10-point font
is easier to read than 8-point font. That’s true whether you are American,
Irish or French. It’s true whether you are writing about software or traditional
Irish music.

Documents should have headings and summaries. Documents should have short
sentences, short line-lengths and paragraphs. Documents themselves should be
short because people like to scan read.

There are fundamental rules of content that have been developed over centuries.
It is professional to understand these rules. A web designer can learn a lot
from print publishing.

In fact, web content rules are more rigid than print publishing rules. That’s
because it’s up to 25 percent more difficult to read on a screen than from

Speaking of fundamental rules, you advocate placing the search engine prominently
on every page of your web site. Yet, you also mention that most sites have
search engines that fail users. (In our research we’ve also found that the
search engine very rarely helps users find the content they’re looking for
on web sites). With on-site search engines failing so often, why should it
be so prominent on a site?

User Interface Engineering’s research on Search use has been very enlightening
and certainly gave me some new perspectives. If I remember right, your research
on apparel websites found that the best ones didn’t even offer Search. [Editor’s
note: two of the top three (out of 13 sites) didn’t offer Search.]

Certainly, for some websites, Search is much less useful than for others.
However, Search is still a fundamental activity for many people on the Web.
What I have found, again and again, is that many websites have awful search

We talked about metadata earlier. Without quality metadata, you can’t have
quality Search. If Search is important to your readers, you need to spend the
time to design it properly. I’ll be looking at basic rules of search design
in my information architecture workshop.